Shanghai Komman Vehicle Component Systems Stock Co., Ltd.
Shanghai Komman Vehicle Component Systems Stock Co., Ltd.

Overview and Structural Composition of Automobile Suspension

Jun 15 , 2022

Automobile suspension is an important part to ensure ride comfort. At the same time, as a force transmission component connecting the frame (or body) and the axle (or wheel), it is also an important component to ensure the safety of the car. This article will briefly introduce it from the aspects of basic introduction, structure and classification.

Ⅰ. The basic introduction of automobile suspension

1. Definition: Suspension is to ensure the elastic connection between the wheel or axle and the vehicle bearing system (frame or load-bearing body), and can transmit the load, ease the impact, attenuate the vibration and adjust the body position of the vehicle while driving such as the air suspension bus. The general name of the device.

2. Function: It is mainly to transmit all the forces and moments acting between the wheel and the frame (or body), and to alleviate the impact of the car when driving over uneven roads, and attenuate the vibration of the bearing system caused by it, so as to ensure the driving safety. Smoothness.

Ⅱ. The structure of the automobile suspension system

Different types of suspension in automobile have been developing continuously from structure type to action principle, but in terms of structure and function, they are composed of three parts: elastic element, damping device and guiding mechanism.

1. Elastic element: transmit the vertical load between the wheel or axle and the frame or body, and rely on its deformation to absorb energy to achieve the purpose of buffering. After the elastic connection is adopted, the car can be regarded as a vibration system composed of suspended mass (ie, sprung mass), unsprung mass (ie, unsprung mass) and spring (elastic element). System and engine incentives.

2. Vibration damping device: the damping element, which can quickly attenuate unnecessary vibration and improve the ride comfort and comfort of the car.

3. Guiding mechanism: It is a connecting device in the automobile suspension that ensures that all the forces and moments between the wheel and the frame or body can be reliably transmitted, and determines the displacement characteristics of the wheel relative to the frame or body. It determines the movement trajectory of the wheel, the change of the wheel alignment parameters, and the position of the front and rear roll center and the pitch center of the car, which greatly affects the handling stability and anti-pitch ability of the whole vehicle.

In addition to the above, in order to prevent the body from excessively rolling, a lateral stabilizer (lateral anti-roll bar) is sometimes installed; some suspensions are also provided with buffer blocks.

In some cases, a part will serve multiple functions. For example, the leaf spring also plays the role of an elastic element and a guide mechanism, the custom made shock absorbers in the automobile suspension also plays the role of a part of the guide mechanism, and the actuator in the active suspension has an elastic element and a shock absorber and a part of the guide mechanism function.

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