Shanghai Komman Vehicle Component Systems Stock Co., Ltd.
Shanghai Komman Vehicle Component Systems Stock Co., Ltd.

Classification of Independent Automobile Suspension Systems

Mar 05 , 2023

Independent automobile suspension system can be divided into wishbone, trailing arm, multi-link, candle and McPherson suspension systems.

1. Cross-arm suspension system

Cross-arm suspension system refers to the independent suspension system in which wheels swing in the transverse plane of the automobile. It can be divided into double-arm suspension and single-arm suspension according to the number of cross-arm.

(1) The single wishbone type has the advantages of simple structure, high roll center and strong anti-roll capability. However, with the increase of the speed of modern cars, the excessively high roll center will cause a large change in the wheel base when the wheels jump, and the tire wear will increase. In addition, the vertical force transfer of the left and right wheels will be too large when turning sharply, resulting in increased camber of the rear wheels and reduced the cornering stiffness of the rear wheel, thus causing severe high-speed tail drift. The single-wishbone independent automobile suspension system is mostly used in the rear suspension system, but because it cannot meet the requirements of high-speed driving, it is not used much.

(2) The double wishbone is divided into two suspension systems: equal length double wishbone and unequal length double wishbone. The equal-length double-wishbone suspension system can keep the kingpin inclination constant when the wheel jumps up and down, but the wheelbase changes greatly (similar to the single-wishbone suspension system), which causes serious tire wear and tear, and is rarely used now.

For the unequal-length double-wishbone suspension system, as long as the length of the upper and lower wishbone is properly selected and optimized, and through reasonable arrangement, the changes of the wheelbase and front wheel alignment parameters can be kept within acceptable limits, ensuring that the vehicle Has good driving stability. The unequal-length double-wishbone suspension has been widely used in the front and rear suspensions of cars, and the rear wheels of some sports cars and racing cars also use this suspension structure.

The double-wishbone suspension is one of the double-wishbone suspensions. It is recognized as the best one for handling. Most performance sports cars and even F1 racing cars use the double-wishbone suspension structure. It's called double A-arm suspension or double-wishbone suspension.

Structurally speaking, double wishbone suspension is arguably the strongest independent suspension. The double-wishbone suspension used on sports cars can well suppress the roll of the vehicle when cornering, and when used on SUVs, it can also cope with the huge impact brought by extreme off-road conditions.

In the double-wishbone suspension structure, the front and rear camber, front wheel toe, kingpin inclination and kingpin caster, these four parameters that have a great influence on the driving performance and handling performance of the vehicle are precisely adjustable. And because the structure of the double wishbone has a high degree of freedom in the design, the engineer can reasonably arrange the position of the hinge point of the space guide rod and the length of the control arm to reduce the variation range of the positioning parameters, thereby improving the overall handling stability of the vehicle sex.

The disadvantage of the double-wishbone suspension is that compared with the McPherson suspension, its structure is more complicated, it takes up a larger space, and the cost is higher, so it is not suitable for the front suspension of small cars. In addition, the determination of the positioning parameters requires accurate calculation and adjustment. The school also has relatively high requirements for the technical strength of the manufacturer.

2. Multi-link automobile suspension system

The multi-link type is a suspension system in which 3-5 rods are combined to control the change of the position of the wheel. The multi-link type can make the wheel swing around the axis at a certain angle with the longitudinal axis of the car. The advantages of cross-arm and trailing-arm suspension systems can be obtained to varying degrees, and different performance requirements can be met.

The main advantage of the multi-link suspension system is that the wheelbase and toe-in change are very small when the wheels jump, and the car can be turned smoothly according to the driver's intention regardless of whether the car is driving or braking. There is shaft swing phenomenon at high speed.

3. Trailing arm type independent automobile suspension system

It refers to the suspension system structure in which the wheels swing in the longitudinal plane of the vehicle, and is divided into two types: single trailing arm type and double trailing arm type. The single trailing arm suspension system will cause a large change in the caster angle when the wheel jumps up and down, so the single trailing arm suspension system is not used on the steering wheel.

The two swing arms of the double trailing-arm suspension system are generally made into equal lengths to form a parallel four-bar structure. In this way, when the wheels jump up and down, the caster angle of the kingpin remains constant. Double trailing arm suspension systems are mostly used on steering wheels.

4. Candle automobile suspension system

Its structural feature is that the wheel moves up and down along the axis of the kingpin rigidly fixed to the frame. The advantage of the candle suspension system is: when the suspension system is deformed, the positioning angle of the kingpin will not change, only the wheelbase and wheelbase will change slightly, so it is especially beneficial to the steering stability and driving stability of the car.

But the candle suspension system has a big disadvantage: that is, the lateral force when the car is running will all be borne by the kingpin sleeved on the kingpin sleeve, resulting in increased frictional resistance between the sleeve and the kingpin, and serious wear and tear. Candle automobile suspension system are not used much now.

5. McPherson automobile suspension system

Its wheels are also a suspension system that slides along the kingpin, but it is not exactly the same as the candle suspension system. Its kingpin can swing. The McPherson suspension system is a combination of a swing arm suspension system and a candle suspension system.

Compared with the double-wishbone suspension system, the advantages of the MacPherson suspension system are: compact structure, small change in front wheel positioning parameters when the wheels jump, and good handling stability. The arrangement of the engine and the steering system brings convenience; compared with the candle suspension system, the lateral force received by its strut has been greatly improved. The MacPherson suspension system is mostly used in the front suspension system of small and medium-sized cars.

Although the McPherson suspension system is not the most technical automobile suspension system structure, it is still a durable independent suspension system with strong road adaptability.

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